General Description

The tree is reported to attain heights of up to 100 feet (30m), with trunk diameters of 32 – 40 inches (80 – 100cm). The heartwood is initially light brown in colour but darkens on exposure to a deep brown, becoming very dark brown or even black with age or over exposure. The grain is commonly straight, occasionally slightly interlocked. Texture is fine and even.


Occurs throughout the lowlands of Sabah and to extend into parts of Borneo, other Indonesian islands and the Philippines.

Common Uses

Used for all heavy construction, marine pilling, boat building, fence posts, heavy-duty industrial flooring, building material and shingles.


The heartwood is reported to have exceptional natural durability and can last for 50 to 100 years in ground contact. It is immune to termites but it susceptible to attack by marine borers.

Physical Properties